Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that is most commonly seen in dogs, but it can easily spread to their caring owners. Our Pleasant Hill veterinarians are available to discuss the symptoms to watch for and how to protect your pet.
What is leptospirosis in dogs?
Leptospirosis is a disease that can harm your dogs, farm animals, and even your family's health. It occurs when a bacterium known as Leptospira (found in water and soil all over the world) contaminates a substance through contact with urine. We've also seen cases of leptospirosis in cats, which feed on host animals like rodents.
This bacteria has been reported almost everywhere, but it is most commonly found in warmer climates with high rainfall. According to research, this disease has slowly spread into areas of the United States such as Colorado, Utah, and Arizona.
While this bacteria can be found anywhere, warmer climates with more rain are more likely to have it. The disease has gradually spread across the Western United States, including Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, according to research. Our Pleasant Hill vets have recently seen a significant increase in cases, indicating that the disease has made its way into California.
Because leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, it can be transmitted from animals to humans. People can contract leptospirosis from contaminated water sources, wild animals, livestock, and other pets, just like pets. The majority of leptospirosis outbreaks in humans are caused by contact with contaminated water.
How do dogs develop leptospirosis?
Every pet is at risk of catching leptospirosis, regardless of where they live in the world (urban, suburban or rural areas). The following factors can increase your pet's risk:
- Exposure to wild animals or farm animal species that may pass infected urine, even in your backyard
- Exposure to or drinking from streams, lakes, rivers, or puddles
- Contact with rodents, such as squirrels or rats, or other dogs (such as in dog parks, facilities where multiple dogs are housed, or urban areas)
What are the symptoms of leptospirosis in dogs?
Leptospirosis symptoms in dogs include:
- Shivering or fever
- Increased drinking and/or urination
- Decreased appetite or not eating
- Conjunctivitis (red eye)
- Inability to have puppies
- Dyspnea (difficulty breathing or coughing)
- Muscle pain, stiffness, or reluctance to move
Testing For Leprospirosis
Microscopic Agglutination Test: This test detects the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in the dog's blood and is the gold standard for diagnosing leptospirosis. If the level of antibodies (called a "titer") is high enough, infection is confirmed.
Preventing & Treating Leptospirosis in Dogs
As with many other diseases, preventing leptospirosis is far more beneficial than treating it. If your dog hasn't been immunized against this disease, consult with your veterinarian to see if it's a good idea for your dog's lifestyle.
The chance of a dog surviving leptospirosis, if the disease is found early enough, is around 80%. However, their kidney and liver function can be severely impaired. Thus, it's always best to prevent the disease with vaccination.
Our vets at Diablo View Veterinary Hospital offer the leptospirosis dog vaccine between 10 and 12 weeks of age as part of our vaccine schedule for dogs. After their primary leptospirosis vaccination, they will require a booster shot three to four weeks later. Beyond that, annual vaccines will be required to protect your dog throughout its lifetime.
Because leptospirosis can be transmitted from dogs to humans, avoid touching their urine with your bare skin and always wash your hands after petting them. When cleaning any areas that your dog has soiled, use rubber gloves and disinfect any areas where your dog has urinated. One of the most effective ways to disinfect your home is to use a diluted bleach solution or a household disinfectant.
Leptospirosis can be treated with prescription antibiotics, which can also prevent other members of your household from becoming infected.